Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings ^{1}, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

^{1} Drawings need not show details, but should show the mathematics in the problem. (This applies wherever drawings are mentioned in the Standards.)

Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., **5 = 2 + 3** and **5 = 4 + 1**).

For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

Fluently add and subtract within 5.