Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
d. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
e. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
f. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I
b. Recognize and name end punctuation.
c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
b. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.